Abstract—A surgical simulator is produced in the work to provide Ear, Nose and Throat surgeons with real-time visual and haptic responses during virtual cochlear implantation. A virtual implant is interactively inserted by the user into a 3D model of the human Scala Tympani (ST). The patient-specific ST model is derived from measured data and allows for individual variability in cochlear shape, enabling pre- operative assessment. Force modeling is based on real physical data and force measurements, and analysis of implant behavior during insertion trials conducted in the work. Force profiles are obtained from the experimental insertion studies to validate the haptic model. The simulator provides real-time, quantitative information on insertion forces and electrode position during virtual implantation. This information may be useful to implant manufacturers for design enhancements as well as for training specialists in optimal force administration. The simulation is the first to offer real-time visualization and force feedback for cochlear implantation into a parameterized model of the human ST. The methods for anatomical modeling and force rendering, as well as simulator design and validation have potential for use in other medical applications involving device insertions where visual feedback is obstructed.
Index Terms—Modeling, simulation, visualization, haptic rendering, medical applications.
C. A. Todd is with the Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering,
University of Wollongong in Dubai, Dubai, 20183, UAE (e-mail:
F. Naghdy is with the School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia (e-mail: email@example.com).
Cite: Catherine A. Todd and Fazel Naghdy, "Real-time Modeling and Simulation for Cochlear Implantation; Visualization and Force Rendering during Virtual Prosthetic Insertions," International Journal of Modeling and Optimization vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 518-523, 2012.